Soviet chemist D. K. Dobroserdov was the first scientist to claim to have found eka-caesium, or francium. [note 1] Outside the laboratory, francium is extremely rare, with trace amounts found in uranium and thorium ores, where the isotope francium-223 continually forms and decays.  Further research into francium's structure was carried out by, among others, Sylvain Lieberman and his team at CERN in the 1970s and 1980s.  Nearly all francium salts are water-soluble. Various tests eliminated the possibility of the unknown element being thorium, radium, lead, bismuth, or thallium. When and How was it Discovered. Perey was discovered francium element by purifying samples of lanthanum that contained actinium.. Perey spent a decade to extract actinium from all the other components of uranium ore, which Curie then used in her study of the decay of the element. There are no commercial applications due to its instability and rarity in nature.  Francium has not been synthesized in amounts large enough to weigh. The discovery took place at the Curie Institute in Paris. Her first test put the alpha branching at 0.6%, a figure which she later revised to 1%. These experiments have led to more specific information regarding energy levels and the coupling constants between subatomic particles. Francium …  Francium was the last element discovered in nature, rather than synthesized, following hafnium and rhenium.  Francium-223 and francium-221 are the only isotopes that occur in nature, with the former being far more common. , Francium is an alkali metal whose chemical properties mostly resemble those of caesium. And after francium, elements were no longer discovered first in nature but were increasingly made artificially. Its use as a potential diagnostic aid for various cancers has also been explored, but this application has been deemed impractical. This name was officially adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) in 1949, becoming the second element after gallium to be named after France. Natural francium cannot be isolated in visible, weighable amounts, for only 24.5 grams (0.86 ounce) occur at any time in the entire crust of Who Discovered Francium. Francium is a chemical element with the symbol Fr and atomic number 87. , Francium-223 is the most stable isotope, with a half-life of 21.8 minutes, and it is highly unlikely that an isotope of francium with a longer half-life will ever be discovered or synthesized.  Francium's melting point was estimated to be around 8.0 °C (46.4 °F, 281.0 K). , In 1996, the Stony Brook group trapped 3000 atoms in their MOT, which was enough for a video camera to capture the light given off by the atoms as they fluoresce. It will additionally coprecipitate with many other caesium salts, including the iodate, the picrate, the tartrate (also rubidium tartrate), the chloroplatinate, and the silicotungstate.  Perey then suggested francium, after France. , The least stable ground state isotope is francium-215, with a half-life of 0.12 μs: it undergoes a 9.54 MeV alpha decay to astatine-211.  The CsFr molecule is predicted to have francium at the negative end of the dipole, unlike all known heterodiatomic alkali metal molecules. Francium was the last element ever discovered in a natural source. , Francium-221 has a half-life of 4.8 minutes.  All other previous purported discoveries of element 87 were ruled out due to francium's very limited half-life. Hulubei insisted that his X-ray apparatus and methods were too accurate to make such a mistake.  Francium has a slightly higher ionization energy than caesium, 392.811(4) kJ/mol as opposed to 375.7041(2) kJ/mol for caesium, as would be expected from relativistic effects, and this would imply that caesium is the less electronegative of the two. Perey was discovered francium element by purifying samples of lanthanum that contained actinium.. Perey spent a decade to extract actinium from all the other components of uranium ore, which Curie then used in her study of the decay of the element. It was assigned the symbol Fa, but this abbreviation was revised to the current Fr shortly thereafter. Irène Joliot-Curie, one of Perey's supervisors, opposed the name due to its connotation of cat rather than cation; furthermore, the symbol coincided with that which had since been assigned to curium.  In 1937, Hulubei's work was criticized by American physicist F. H. Hirsh Jr., who rejected Hulubei's research methods. and of atomic structure.  In 1934, H.G. 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