Evaluate individual stands to determine site-appropriate actions, such as monitoring in healthy stands, or thinning, mowing, and prescribed fire in at-risk stands. Past logging, grazing and suppression of fire has created pine stands with tree densities several times the pre-settlement condition. On federal land, ponderosa pine habitats are increasingly being restored or managed consistent with wildlife conservation goals through fuel reduction treatments, retention of large-diameter trees, and high snags densities. The understory often has shrubs, including green-leaf manzanita, buckbrush, and snowberry. The structure of a savanna is open and park-like with an understory dominated by fire-adapted grasses and forbs as well as shrub fields. In parts of the East Cascades and Klamath Mountains, increasing home and resort development in forested habitats makes prescribed fire difficult in some areas and increases risk of high-cost wildfires. Their understories are variable combinations of shrubs, herbaceous plants, and grasses. Pre-settlement pine stands had 19 - 47 trees per acre and trees were often found in relatively even-aged clumps approximately tenth of an acre in size. Ponderosa pine habitats also include savannas, which have widely-spaced trees (canopies of less than 1 percent) that are generally more than 150 years old. Emphasize prevention, risk assessment, early detection, and quick control to prevent new invasive speciesĀ  from becoming fully established. Control wildfires in cheatgrass-dominated areas of the Blue Mountains. These fires burned through refuge ponderosa pine forest as frequently as once every 8 years. Younger stands can provide habitat forĀ some wildlife species; however, old-growth ponderosa pine forests support species such as the White-headed Woodpecker that require large-diameter trees and an open understory and are sensitive to changes in the forest seral stage. Feeling blue? Ponderosa pine habitats historically covered a large portion of the Blue Mountains ecoregion, as well as parts of the East Cascades and Klamath Mountains. Retain features that are important to wildlife, including snags, downed logs, forage, and hiding cover for wildlife species, and replant with native shrub, grass, and forb species. Past forest practices and fire suppression have resulted in either dense growth of young pine trees or dense, young mixed conifer stands, depending on local site conditions and natural climax species. These dense stands are at increased risk of uncharacteristically severe wildfires, disease, and damage by insects. Most old-growth ponderosa pine stands are greatly reduced in size and connectivity, occurring in a patchwork with much younger forests that are managed with shorter rotations to generate timber products. The structure is park-like with an open grassy or shrubby understory. Due to past selective logging and fire suppression, dense patches of smaller conifers have grown in the understory of ponderosa pine forests. Look for the western bluebird, the perfect indicator of a healthy, thriving ponderosa pine forest. Here, pine woodlands are usually dominated by ponderosa pine, but may be dominated by Jeffery pine, depending on soil mineral content, fertility, and temperatures. Prior to recent thinning efforts and reintroduction of fire, large portions of the refuge ponderosa pine forest had a similar age and size structure. All information on this website is considered, Challenges and Opportunities for Private Landowners to Initiate Conservation Actions, Factors affecting Strategy Species and Habitats, Oregon Department of Forestry Forest Practices Research and Monitoring Program, Partners in Flight Conservation Strategy for Landbirds in the Northern Rocky Mountains of Eastern Oregon and Washington, Partners in Flight Conservation Strategy for Landbirds of the East-Slope of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon and Washington, Managing for Cavity-Nesting Birds in Ponderosa Pine Forests. Support community-based forest health collaboratives to increase the pace and scale of forest restoration. Size (height & diameter) English & Metric: 60-130 ft. (18-39 m) tall, trunk 30-60" (.9-1.7 m) in diameter. Ponderosa pine woodlands are a Strategy Habitat in the Blue Mountains, East Cascades, and Klamath Mountains ecoregions. Ponderosa pine woodlands are a Strategy Habitat in the Blue Mountains, East Cascades, and Klamath Mountains ecoregions. In the Blue Mountains, East Cascades, and Klamath Mountains ecoregions, ponderosa pine woodlands have open canopies (approximately 10-40 percent canopy cover). Few large blocks of habitat remain. Ponderosa pine associations are intermixed on refuge uplands with both steppe and soil- infuenced climax plant associations. Throughout Oregon, the open structure of ponderosa pine habitats was historically maintained by frequent, low-intensity surface fires, with some intermittent higher-intensity fires. Develop implementation plans for prescribed fire that are acceptable for management of both game and non-game species. Reintroduce site-appropriate native grasses and forbs after invasive plant control. In areas of the East Cascades experiencing rapid development, work with local communities to minimize development in large blocks of intact habitat. Habitat: Mountains with moderate amount of rainfall at elevations between 3000 and 9000 ft. (914-2700 m) Flowering Season: N/A not a flowering plant. Pine or pine-oak woodlands occur on dry, warm sites in the foothills and mountains of southern Oregon. However, lower log and shrub densities may be desirable in priority White-headed Woodpecker areas, so sites need to be evaluated for appropriate understory vegetation management. In these areas, invasive plants should be monitored and controlled as they first arrive when control is more efficient, practical, and cost-effective. Many of these mixed conifer forests are located in Fire Regime Condition Class II or Condition Class III areas where the risk of loss of key ecosystem components is moderate or high. Highlight successful, environmentally-sensitive fuel management programs. 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